Chapter 1: Odor and the Science of Olfaction
Chapter 2: Exploration of the Sources of Odor
Chapter 3: The Interrelationship Between Microorganisms and Odor
Chapter 4: Effective Odor Detection Techniques
Chapter 5: Process of Deodorization
Chapter 6: Process of Oxidation
Chapter 7: Process of Enzymatic Action
Chapter 8: Process of Chemical Deodorization
Chapter 9: Process of Sealing
Chapter 10: Deodorization Equipment and Supplies
Chapter 11: Remediating Protein and Chemical Odors
Chapter 12: Death Scene Restoration

There are a number of different types of equipment that are utilized to remediate offensive odors. This includes simplistic equipment and supplies to more complicated options. The most commonly utilized deodorization equipment includes:

  • Pump Sprayers
  • Trigger Sprayers
  • Misters
  • Foggers
  • Ozone generators
  • Hydroxyl generators
  • Vapor modification units

Pump Sprayers or Trigger Sprayers

Even when it comes to the task of addressing foul odors, there are situations in which simple is better. This can hold true in regard to deodorization equipment.

The reality is that many odor remediation experts frequently utilize pump sprayers or trigger sprayers when it comes to taking on an odor elimination project. These types of sprayers provide the ability to apply odor remediation chemicals directly to the affected spot or area.


Misters are what fairly can be considered more complex types of sprayers. Misters operates by breaking down a water-based liquid compound. When this process completes, misters, in turn, emit a fine mist. The mist encompasses particles ranging in size from 20 to 7 microns. Misters prove efficient at addressing odors in carpeting.

Misters prove effective at addressing odor issues arising from under carpeting. In addition, misters are effective at remediating odors associated with water damage as well as pet odors, including cat and dog urine.


There are a number of different types of foggers that can be effective at remediating odors in a residential setting. These include:

  • Ultra-low volume foggers
  • High-volume wet foggers
  • Standard thermal foggers
  • Electric thermal foggers

Ultra-Low Volume Foggers

Ultra-low volume foggers are designed to breakdown different liquid compounds to a size of between 8 to 15 microns. This ultra-low breakdown is what separates this type of fogger from a mister.

If an alcohol-based deodorizer is used in this type of fogger, it can breakdown to a size of 5 microns. The smaller the size, the longer a substance is vaporized and airborne.

High-Volume Wet Foggers

High-volume foggers are not recommended for indoor applications. Because of the volume of moisture released via these types foggers, moisture sensitive items and materials in a residence run the risk of being damaged when this type of fogger is utilized. With that cautionary note made, high-volume wet foggers are effective at treating areas under carpets. They can also address pet odors, including cat and dog urine.

Standard Thermal Foggers

Standard thermal foggers are gas powered and utilize petroleum-based deodorants. These foggers heat the deodorants to a point that vaporization occurs. The deodorant is emitted into the air, with a particle size of about ½ to 2 microns. Non-petroleum based oils can also be used in this type of fogger.

Because of the reduced particle size, the fog generated by this type of equipment floats into the air, can cover a large space, and can neutralize odors in all types of porous materials. 

The standard thermal fogger was first utilized by the fire and smoke restoration industry. This type of equipment is now being used for other odor remediation purposes as well in this day and age. This includes death scene odor remediation. 

Electric Thermal Foggers

Electric thermal foggers are smaller than their standard brethren. These foggers operate on the same principle as a standard thermal fogger. With that said, because they are smaller, electric thermal foggers take a longer time to remediate odors in a space. In addition, electric thermal foggers can efficiently address odors in a smaller space than is the case with a standard derivation of this equipment.

Ozone Generators

Ozone generators have been discussed elsewhere in this guidebook. In basic terms, ozone generators are devices that are designed to produce a gas that remediates different types of foul odors. Specifically, an ozone generator produces and emits ozone gas.

Ozone generators typically are utilized by professionals to remediate smoke odor. In addition, ozone generators are used by pros to deal with protein odors, including death scene cleanup.

As was made clear elsewhere in this guidebook, there are notable restrictions on the use of ozone generators in the state of California. There are also hazards associated with the use of ozone generators that must be recognized. For this reason, an ozone generator should only be used in a space that has been cleared of all life forms.

Hydroxyl Generators

Hydroxyl generators are designed to generate hydroxyl ions. This is accomplished via ultraviolet light that results in an oxidation process that eliminates odor. Unlike an ozone generator, evacuation of life forms is not necessary. In addition, there are no restrictions on a hydroxyl generator in California as is the case with ozone generators.

A hydroxyl generator can be utilized to decontaminate and remove odors on most types of surfaces. It can also be used to remediate odors on different types of items as well.

Vapor Modification Units

Vapor modification units are new concepts when it comes to odor remediation. These units utilize what is termed fragrance modification that results in the neutralization of different types of offensive odors.

One of the better-known vapor modification units is a product known as the Vapor Shark. This device and similar products are found to be particularly effective at neutralizing smoke odor. They are also effective at addressing other types of foul odors as well.

Unlike an ozone generator, a vapor modification unit does not require the evacuation of space when in use. Living things, including people and pets, can remain onsite when this type of device is in operation.

As we head into the final components of this guidebook, we address specific types of odors. The first types of odors we discuss in the next chapter are those that have a protein base.


Emily Kil

Co-Owner of Eco Bear Biohazard Cleaning Company

Together with her husband, Emily Kil is co-owner of Eco Bear, a leading biohazard remediation company in Southern California. An experienced entrepreneur, Emily assisted in founding Eco Bear as a means of combining her business experience with her desire to provide assistance to people facing challenging circumstances. Emily regularly writes about her first-hand experiences providing services like biohazard cleanup, suicide cleanup, crime scene cleanup, unattended death cleanup, and other types of difficult remediations in homes and businesses.